Tuesday, November 4, 2014

Research Blog #7: My Case

My case is how lonely the first-generation college world is. Evidence shows that social integration is completely beneficial for for college students. However, survival in college for first-generation college students relies heavily on the integrating experience. Therefore, it is vital for these students. Many of these students are not aware importance of integration, lack the skills to integrate, do not have time integrate, and do not share the experiences of the people they are expected to integrate with.

Research Blog #6: Visual

I selected this image because it shows how important it is to have people connected and socially integrated in life in general. However, the angle of the image shows that the connection is what keeps these people standing. Without being connected in some way, a person can fall. This is the point I want to illustrate. When first-generation students are not connected, socially integrated, or part of a networking system, they are more likely to fall, fail, and drop-out.

I want to emphasize the importance of social integration on both sides. Institutions should work to create networking systems like this one. It is also the responsibility of the students to be part and get involved in these networks.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

Literature Review #4:

The article criticizes the integration process between races. Even though it doesn't focus solely on the socialization of first-generation students, it does make a point that there is a lack of cooperation on both sides to "mingle." According to Ritger, the increasing problem is because people have preconceived notions and stereotypes they hold against certain groups of people. However, this is a institutional problem as well as an individual problem. Ritger says, "increasing the number of minority students could be part of the solution to ending racial stereotypes on campus." This means the institutions should work on incorporating different types of people. Also, people should put themselves in clubs and organizations that make them branch out. '"There are many members of Notre Dame’s faculty and administration that are committed to these goals, but the real power of the movement lies with the students.'"
Clara Ritger
There is also a point that Ritger makes. She says that we have taught people to "tolerate" and not integrate. “We have this national attitude that you should accept your neighbor’s black kid, but you wouldn’t want your neighbor’s black kid to date your white daughter.'" 

Privatization increases the chances of making schools very narrow. Certain people get in and certain people do not. Certain people get opportunity and others don't. However, the idea of integrating is also a private problem. There is always an increasing demand for people to socialize. That is not only responsibility of the university but also of the person.

 Works Cited
Ritger, Clara . "Why racial integration is still a problem on today's campus." USA TODAY College. N.p., 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. <http://college.usatoday.com/2013/03/11/why-racial-integration-is-still-a-problem-on-todays-campus/>.

Research Blog #4 and #5

The Lonely World of a First-Generation College Kid
This research paper focuses on the importance of social integration for first-generation college students. It is important to understand that social integration is vital for every student’s college experience and success. However, research proves that it has an even better effect on first-generation college students.
However, the issue is that privatization of college has made college success an individual problem rather than an institutional one. The issue then is defining the roles of college institutions in creating networks and support systems, and these first generation college students in taking advantage of the opportunities provided to them.
Research Questions:
How does the privatization of college affect social integration for first-generation college students? Whose responsibility is it to fix the problems that are brought to these students? Is social integration an institutional or an individual phenomenon?
Theoretical Frame Approach:
I want to focus my argument on three aspects of the first-generation college life. The first part of my argument would centered on “Social integration.” This is centered around Ernest Pascarella’s "First-Generation College Students: Additional Evidence On College Experiences And Outcomes." He makes the argument that first-generation students must value the idea of social integration. In his research, he provided evidence, as to why students should take advantage of getting involved. However, Vincent Tinto and Jennifer Engle make an argument of how social integration is a systemic problem. They conclude that social integration is beneficial for students but universities should take the responsibility of providing programs and environments where integration is encouraged.
The other argument would be how synonymous first-generation, minority, and working-class students are. In Mark Rubin’s "Social class differences in social integration among students in higher education: A meta-analysis and recommendations for future research.." he emphasizes that first Generation college students are working-class students. He emphasizes that there is a need for them to work because they lack the resources needed to start and finish college. Why is that? This comes down to the privatization of college institutions. The emphasis on working, makes it harder for students to engage in social activities. The harder it is to engage, the less like students are able to graduate or become successful post-graduation.
Lastly, I would like to emphasize what social integration or lack thereof does for first-generation students. Who should carry the burden of becoming more involved? In the USA Today article, “Why racial integration is still a problem on today’s campus,” Clara Ritger talks about the strain on minorities to venture out into clubs and activities that do not necessarily involve them. She also talks about how integration itself is something that must be taught at home. How much should a family do, first-generation or not, to enhance their child’s integrating experience?
Research Plan:
My plan is to connect privatization to the graduation rates of first-generation college students. Because of privatization, students that are from an impoverished background are more likely to take on a job. They are afraid of the “Red” and often feel like they must face it themselves. The emphasis of working to avoid being in the red, makes little time to get out and be social. Therefore, privatization deprives first-generation students from the integrating experience.
Armstrong, Elizabeth and Laura Hamilton.  Paying for the Party: How College Maintains Inequality.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 2013. Print.
Engle, Jennifer, and Vincent Tinto. Moving beyond access: college success for low-income, first-generation students. Washington, D.C.: Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2008. Print.
Pascarella, Ernest T., Christopher T. Pierson, Gregory C. Wolniak, and Patrick T. Terenzini. "First-Generation College Students: Additional Evidence On College Experiences And Outcomes." The Journal of Higher Education 75.3 (2004): 249-284. Print.
Ritger, Clara . "Why racial integration is still a problem on today's campus." USA TODAY College. N.p., 11 Mar. 2013. Web. 10 Oct. 2014. <http://college.usatoday.com/2013/03/11/why-racial-integration-is-still-a-problem-on-todays-campus/>.
Rubin, Mark. "Social class differences in social integration among students in higher education: A meta-analysis and recommendations for future research.." Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 5 (2011): 22-38. Print.

Monday, October 20, 2014

Literature Review #3: Social Integration for First Generation Students

This book focuses on the how first-generation college students are faced with not only academic and social challenges, but also financial constraints they face. While Rubin, in my previous post, automatically assumes that first-generation students are working class students, Tinto and Engle focus on how most first generation students are challenged financially.

Dr. Jennifer Engle
Dr, Vincent Tinto

The book proposed that students are likely not only to work but also live off campus, therefore they are unable to engage socially and interact with peers. While they talk address these problems, they suggest things that could help fix the problem. They address that there is an institutional problem involved. There is also an institutional solution.

The authors of this book were Vincent Tinto and Jennifer Engle. Vincent Tinto is a distinguished sociologist at Syracuse University. His studies typically focus on social patterns and education. Jennifer Engle is Senior Program Officer at the Gates Foundation. She was also in charge of educational research the Pell Institute.

Due largely to the lack of resources low-income, first generation are more likely to live and work off-campus and to take classes part-time while working full-time, which limits the amount of time they spend on campus. (3)

Loans can increase persistence for first-generation students; however, they also found that even low levels of accumulated debt load can significantly decrease persistence among this population. This suggests that first-generation students are highly debt averse and may choose to work rather than take out loans to pay for education. (21)

It is well-established that student academic and social engagement is central to student success. It follows, however, that institutions must provide professional development for faculty and staff to... learn how to effectively use [pedagogical] skills with at-risk populations... first-generation students. (26)

The privatization of colleges is indirectly addressed when Tinto and Engle talk about loans. They also talk about how privatization has made paying for college among first generation students an individual problem. They address, however, how the problem is actually an institutional one. While it congratulates students for taking on work and load and accepting the loan challenge, it says that the institution cannot put the burden on just the individual. They say that the institution must provide networks and organizations for development and support for these students. This the only way to fix the problem among first generation college students.

Works Cited

Engle, Jennifer, and Vincent Tinto. Moving beyond access: college success for low-income, first-generation students. Washington, D.C.: Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education, 2008. Print.

Literature Review #2: Social Class and Social Integration

Dr. Mark Rubin

Dr. Mark Rubin teaches at the University of Newcastle, Australia, in their School of Psychology. A lot of his work focuses on the social processes and problems. He looks at how the collective or specific group is affected by various instances. He deals with things like socialization, social identity, social integration, and even social exclusion.

The journal stresses that first-generation students are more likely to be working-class students. It stresses that students that are first generation tend to work their way through college. Either they feel obliged to pay loans as they go, or they feel as though their families cannot afford the additional fees that come along with attending college. Because of this stress on being working-class students, there are generally three things that impede working-class students' college success.

Working-class students are less likely to receive social support for their higher education studies from their family and hometown friends.

Working-class students are less likely to receive informational support from their parents because their parents do not usually have any personal experience of the higher education system.

Working-class students are less likely to have access to higher education norms and role models in their families.

The privatization of college, has increased the pressure on first-generation students to pick up jobs while schooling. That in itself has a trickle down effect and prevents students from engaging in activities at school. Therefore, there is less time and opportunity for first generation students to engage in student life. Privatization of colleges increases the stress of paying off loans as soon as possible,

Work Cited
Rubin, Mark. "Social class differences in social integration among students in higher education: A meta-analysis and recommendations for future research.." Journal of Diversity in Higher Education 5 (2011): 22-38. Print.

Tuesday, October 7, 2014

Research Blog #3: Privitization for the First Generation College Student

 Privatization emphasizes the individual reform and does nothing to change the system. It stresses the individual over the fact that system need reform. In order to help first-generation college students to network and integrate socially systems must be put in place to encourage such behavior. Therefore privatization only hinders and slows the process of social integration for first-generation college students.In Ken Ilgunas's Walden on Wheels he focuses on how he had to make sacrifices to accommodate the post-college life.  "To live in harmony with our own particular needs and desires, I knew I had to test ideologies, not follow them, I told myself that it was okay to want things, if I had a money, to buy things," (282). The system didn't change so he forced to change his lifestyle make things work.